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Application of Self Propelling Capsule Endoscope (Fin Type) to Human
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Press release on Application of Self Propelling Capsule Endoscope (Fin Type) to Human
June, 2011
N. Ohtsuka, President & CEO, MU Ltd., Emeritus Prof., Ryukoku Univ. 丂
Team of Prof. H. Nishihara, Dept. of Mechanical and Systems Eng., Ryukoku Univ.丂
Team of Prof. K. Higuchi, Internal Medicine(II), Osaka Medical College丂
仦Date: June 21, 2011 (Tuesday) From 10:30 to 11:30

仦Presentors丗Naotake OHTSUKA, President, Mu Ltd., Emeritus Prof. of Ryukoku Univ.
Prof Hironori NISHIHARA and Lecturer Yasunori SHINDO, Ryukoku Univ.
Prof. Kazuhide HIGUCHI and Assoc. Prof. Eiji UMEGAKI, Osaka Medical College

The capsule endoscope (CE) is an innovative device for painless examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract, especially small intesine, which was given initial approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2001. More than one million patients worldwide have benefited from the PillCam SB video capsules (11mm x 26mm) developped by Given Imaging.
Unlike the c
onventional esophago-gastroduodenoscope (EGD) and colonoscope, CE does not allow examiners to observe a lesion from a desired location and direction in real time. To overcome this disadvantage, we have been endeavoring to develop a microactuator driving system for a capsule endoscope using a magnetic field.
We previously reported successful real-time endoscopic examination of a dog stomach using this driv
ing system. We here report the successful deployment of the SPCE in vivo in stomach and colon of a human, which suffered no apparent harmful effects on health.

Outline of the system
Unlike the tube endoscope, a capsule endoscope (CE) occasionally does not allow examiners to observe a lesion at the desired position and direction in real time. To overcome this disadvantage, we have developed a self-propelling capsule endoscope (SPCE), which is propelled in the digestive tract under the influence of the magnetic field. When a small magnet is placed in an alternative magnetic field, the magnet vibrates. Then the vibration is transmitted to a fin and an impelling force is generated (see the animation in Fig.1).
Using this principal, the improved SPCE has a
flexible silicone fin with a small magnet attached at the end of an existing CE and is propelled by a fluctuating magnetic field remotely.
The moving velocity and direction are controlled freely using a joystick by adjusting the wave form of the electric current running in the magnetic coils. The construction of the SPCE system is shown in Photo1. We gave a nickname for Mini Mermaid (MM1) to the SPCE in Photo2, the size of which is 12mm in diameter and 45 mm in total length.
This system was used for examination of the digestive tract in real time.

Fig.1 Animation of how to drive self-propelling capsule endoscope (Mermaid)
You can watch the animation by clicking a triangle start key.
Photo侾 Outline of the controlling system for SPCE Photo俀 Self-propelling capsule endoscope for stomach 乮MM1乯

丂Summary of in vivo observation of a human丗Stomach丂
仠Method of examination
The improved SPCE, the MM1, was swallowed by a human volunteer and propelled into the stomach of the human for gastric examination in vivo.
Before swallowing the MM1, 500 ml of water was consumed by a volunteer.
fornix and gastric body were observed at the left decubitus position, the gastric body and gastric angle at the decubitus dorsal position, and the antrum at the right decubitus position.
Photo俁 MM1 swimming in a water tank before the examination
You can watch the movie
by clicking here.
Results of examination in vivo
(1) The SPCE (MM1) could be swallowed easily and safely without sedation, and it passed through the esophagus and cardia in a short time (see Photo 4 and movies).
(2) The MM1 could propel by itself under water in the stomach without injuring the gastric wall, and the moving direction and velocity were controlled remotely.
(3) Each gastric position could be observed, and the images were obtained and monitored in real time (see Photo 5 and movies).

(1) Scene of colon observation (2) MM1 for stomach observation (3) Swallowing scene of MM1 for stomach observation
You can watch the movie
by clicking here.
 Photo係 Scene of examination on humen
(1) Cardia and fornix (2) Greater curvature in gastric body
You can watch the movie
by clicking here.
(3) Antrum to pylorus ring
Photo俆 Images of stomach shot by MM1

丂Summary of in vivo observation of a human丗Colon丂
仠Method of examination
A human volunteer stayed at the left decubitus and was injected 500 ml of water passing anus. The new SPCE (Tall Mermaid, TM1; the total size with 12亊65 mm) went to his left side colon through his anus (see Photo 6 and Photo 4(1)).
The following experiments were conducted: (1) Operation of the SPCE by remote control in human colon. (2) Obtaining of endoscopic images using a real time monitoring system.

Self-propelling capsule endoscope for colon乮TM1乯
Results of examination

 (1) The operator was able to drive the SPCE, TM1, in colon by remote control and it could take clear images .
(2) We could confirm by colon scope that the TM1 moved smoothly in colon.
(3) The TM1 was able to exhaust from his anus easily and safety.

(1) Sigmoid colon (2) Discending colon
(3) Spleen curvature (4) Transverse colon
Photo俈 Images of colon shot by TM1

丂Summary of exhibition丗Experiment in models丂
Exhibition of movement of the MM1 in a phantom stomach and a tube simulating the small intestine was shown (see Photo 8 and movies).
(1) MM1 moving in a phantom stomach
You can watch the movie
by clicking here.
(2) MM1 moving in a tube simulating small intestine
You can watch the movie
by clicking here.
Photo俉 Scene of open experiment


The human stomach was examined using an improved SPCE, MM1, safely.
Also we succeeded in observing human colon with SPCE the first time in the world.
These results suggest that the goal for application of the SPCE to clinical diagnosis of whole digestive tract would not be far.

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